Snore – Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms
AHI (Apnea/Hypopnea Index). The number of apneas and hypopneas per hour. 5-15 is mild, 15-30 is moderate, and above 30 is severe. The apnea hypopnea index (AHI), a count of the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep, is the key measure used for case identification, for quantifying disease severity, and for defining disease prevalence in normal and clinical populations.
AI (Apnea Index) – A measure of the severity of sleep apnea; the number of apnea events per hour.
APAP (Auto-PAP). Auto-titrating, self-adjusting device. Unlike CPAP, APAP is designed to adjust with patients as their sleeping conditions and physiology fluctuate. For instance, if you snore or are having obstructive events on your back you may not need the same pressure while you are on your side. APAP devices adjust on a breath by breath basis for this very reason and eliminate a high fixed pressure. Each APAP manufacturer has its own proprietary algorithm, and each performs at a different level, responding differently to different breathing patterns.
ASPS (Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome). Phases of the daily sleep/wake cycle are advanced with respect to clock time. This is classified as a circadian rhythm disorder. The sleep phase occurs well ahead of the conventional bedtime and the tendency is to wake up too early.
Arousal – abrupt change from sleep to wakefulness, or from a “deeper” stage of non-REM sleep to a “lighter” stage.
Bi-Level, BiPAP (Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure). Bi-level pressure device used to treat sleep apnea. The “bi” refers to two pressures: a lower pressure for exhalation and a higher pressure for inhalation. Some people tolerate Bi-Level machines better because they can exhale comfortably against the constant inhalation pressure. Others may benefit from the increased ventilator support such as individuals suffering from lung disorders or certain neuromuscular disorders.
BPM (Beats Per Minute). refers to how many times the heart beats in a minute.
CA (Central apnea). Absence of airflow and inspiratory effort; apnea caused by irregularity in the brain’s control of breathing.
CNS (Central Nervous System). CNS is the complex menagerie of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body and consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure). A device to alleviate periods of obstructed breathing in a sleeping person without changing delivery pressures. The CPAP machine provides a single prescribed pressure of air to create an air splint in the upper airway to eliminate events secondary to Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA).
CSA (Central Sleep Apnea). Absence of respiratory effort due to deficient central-nervous-system activity. Definition: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea.
DI (Desaturation Index). The number of oxygen desaturations below 90% occurring per hour of sleep.
DIMS (Disorders of Initiation and Maintanance of Sleep). Medical terminology for various “insomnias”. Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders Definition: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
DOES (Disorders Of Excessive Sleepiness). Inclusive term for various disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, et al.
EDS (Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (somnolence) hypovigilance). This is persistent sleepiness and most times a general lack of energy. It is a very common complaint of sleep apnea sufferers.
EEG (Electroencephalogram). A graphic measure of cerebral neuroelectrical activity, used in sleep studies to detemine sleep stages. This is a recording of the electrical impulses from the nerves in the head. “Electro” refers to the electrical impulses sent from one nerve cell to another. These impulses are the way nerves talk to each other and get information from the brain to the rest of the body. “Encephalo” refers to the head, and “gram” refers to the printed record.
EKG (ECG) Electrocardiogram. A graphic measure of cardiac myoneural electrical activity. EKG or ECG is a test that measures the electrical activity of the heartbeat. With each beat, an electrical impulse (or “wave”) travels through the heart. This wave causes the muscle to squeeze and pump blood from the heart. A normal heartbeat on the electrocardiogram tracing will show the timing of the top and lower chambers. Sometimes the heart will show irregular beats when sleep disorders are present, so this is a very important measurement within the sleep study.
ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat). The lay term for the specialty of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery; the anatomic domain of that specialty.
EOG (Electrrculography). The graphic recording of extra ocular movements (EOM). Electro-oculogram is the a recording of the difference in electrical charge between the front and back of the eye that is correlated with eyeball movement (as in REM sleep) and obtained by electrodes placed on the skin near the eye.
EOM (Extra Ocular Movements). Eye movements useful in detection of sleep stages (REM versus NREM).
EPAP (Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure). EPAP is the setting on the xPap machine that occurs at the time of exhalation, opposite the inspiratory phase of the machine’s cycle. The inspiratory and expiratory pressures are the same in a CPAP machine.
ESS (Epworth Sleepiness Scale). A subjective measurement of sleepiness.
FNPSG (Full-Night Polysomnography). Overnight sleep studies as contrasted to split-night studies.
GA, GGA (Genioglosses Advacement). A Surgical procedure for OSAHS that advances the position of the tongue.
HA (Hyoid Advancements). A surgical procedure for OSAHS that advances the position of the hyoid bone.
Hypopnea is a reduction in airflow, typically associated with a decrease in one oxygen level in their blood.
IPAP (Inspiratory Positive Airway Pressure). IPAP is the setting on the BiPAP machine that occurs, at the time of exhalation opposite the expiratory phase of the machine’s cycle.
LSAT (Lowest Saturation of oxygen). Lowest measure of oxihemoglobin (during a sleep study); same as peak oxygen desatutarion.
LAUP (Laser-Assisted Uvulopalatoplatsty). A surgical tratment for snoring (or obstructive sleep apnea) of uvular and palatal origin.
LUPP (Laser Uvulopalatoplatsty). See LAUP.
MSA (Mixed Sleep Apnea). The combination of central and obstructive sleep apnea in one patient.
MSLT (Multiple Sleep Latency Test). Measurements of the time required for sleep onset, indcative of a person’s tendency to fall asleep.
MWT (Maintenance of Wakefulness Test). A measure of one’s ability to resist sleep onset (12 minutes is the lower boundary for 95% of humans).
NC (Neck Circumference). Measurement of neck size (17 inches strongly correlates with obstructive sleep apnea in males).
NCPAP, nCPAP (Nasal or Nocturnal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure). See CPAP.
NPAT (Nasopharyngeal Airway Tube). Appropriately sized nasopharyngeal airway tubes may abate the snoring sound; however, they may be too painful and intolerable for daily use.
NPSG (Nocturnal Polysomnography). See PSG.
NREM, NREM Sleep (Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep). Stages 1-4 sleep. NREM sleep is dreamless sleep. During NREM, the brain waves on the EEG recording are typically slow and of high voltage, the breathing and heart rate are slow and regular, the blood pressure is low, and the sleeper is relatively still. NREM sleep is divided into 4 stages of increasing depth leading to REM sleep.
OA (Obstructive Apnea). Absence of respiratory airflow despite respiratory effort, due to upper airway obstruction.
OA (Oral Appliance). A tratment device for obstructive sleep apnea, designed to advance the position of the tongue and/or mandible.
OAT (Oral Appliance Therapy). Treatment of snoring, obstructive sleep apnea, or various other disorders with oral appliances.
ODI (Oxygen Desaturation Index). The number of oxygen desaturations below 90% occurring per hour (of sleep).
OSA (Obstructive sleep apnea). See also OSAS.
OSAS (Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome).
PLMD-Arousal Index – number of sleep-related periodic leg movements per hour of sleep that are associated with an EEG arousal.
REM (Rapid Eye Movement (sleep)). REM associated with rapid and random side-to-side movements of the closed eyes, a phenomenon which can be monitored and measured by EOG. This eye motion is not constant but intermittent. It is still not known exactly what purpose it serves, but it is believed that the eye movements may relate to the internal visual images of the dreams that occur during REM sleep. REM sleep occurs in cycles of about 90-120 minutes throughout the night, and it accounts for up to 20-25% of total sleep time in adult humans. Often people who suffer with sleep apnea are deprived of REM sleep, which impacts the person’s daytime cognition and mental performance.
SA (Sleep apnea).
SAS (Sleep Apnea Syndrome).
SmartPAP, Smart CPAP (Smart [Continuous] Positive Airway Pressure). Medical device used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea providing preset levels of continuous airflow, and automatically adjusting to keep the breathing passages open by sensing changes in airway integrity. The air flows from the device through a tube that connects to a nose or face mask.
SRBD (Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder). An inclusive term that denotes all disorders related to SDB, such as OSAHS, UARS and snoring.
SWS (Slow-Wave Sleep). Delta-wave (restorative) sleep, stages III-IV.
UARS (Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome). Excessive daytime sleepiness (with or without other consequences of sleep fragmentation) due to repetitive sleep arousals related to airway-resistive breathing disturbances, with RDI below 5 per hour and in the absence of oxygen desaturations below 90%. Snoring is generally (but not necessarily) present. Presumtively: “nonapneic snoring” with excessive daytime sleepiness.
UAW (Upper Airway). That portion of the airway extending from the nostrils to the larynx.
UPPP, UP-3 (Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty). A surgical procedure for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea designed to shorten the uvula and soft palate, to remove redundant/flaccid pharyngeal tissues, and to stiffen the oropharyngeal airway.
UPP (Uvulopalatoplaty). A limited adaptation of UPPP designed to shorten and stiffen the uvula and soft palate but without involement of the lateral pharyngeal walls.
UVPP (Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty). See UPPP.
VPI (Velopharyngeal Incompetence (insufficiency)). A dysfunction of the spincteric closure action of the soft palate, allowing regurgitation of pharyngeal liquids into the nose during swallowing and air escape into the nose during speech (open rhinolalia or “cleft palate speech”).
References & External links
- Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: http://www.reference.md/.
- Fairbanks, David NF, Samuel A. Mickelson, and B. Tucker Woodson, eds. Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.
- Ruehland, W. R., et al. singh P; Thornton AT. The new AAsm criteria for scoring hypopneas: Impact on the apnea hypopnea index. Sleep 32.2 (2009): 150-157.
- Camacho, Macario, et al. “Treatment of Snoring with a Nasopharyngeal Airway Tube.” Case Reports in Medicine 2016 (2016). “Objective. To study the feasibility of a standard nasopharyngeal airway tube (NPAT) as treatment for snoring. Methods. An obese 35-year-old man, who is a chronic, heroic snorer, used NPATs while (1) the patient’s bedpartner scored the snoring and (2) the patient recorded himself with the smartphone snoring app “Quit Snoring.” Baseline snoring was 8–10/10 (10 = snoring that could be heard through a closed door and interrupted the bedpartner’s sleep to the point where they would sometimes have to sleep separately) and 60–200 snores/hr. Several standard NPATs were tested, consisting of soft polyvinyl chloride material raging between 24- and 36-French (Fr) tubes. Results. The 24 Fr tube did not abate snoring. The 26 Fr tube was able to abate the snoring sound most of the night (smartphone app: 11.4 snores/hr, bedpartner VAS = 2/10). The 28 and 30 Fr tubes abated the snoring sound the entire time worn (smartphone app: 0 snores, bedpartner VAS 0/10) but could not be tolerated more than 2.5 hours. The tube of 36 Fr size could not be inserted, despite several attempts bilaterally. Conclusion. Appropriately sized nasopharyngeal airway tubes may abate the snoring sound; however, as in this patient, they may be too painful and intolerable for daily use.“